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Adaptive & Assistive Technologies for VI Learners
Assessment and the Use of Software
Assistive and Adaptive Technology in Special Education
Cooperative Learning and Classroom Software
Drill and Practice
Ethnicity Issues and Software
Fidelity of Simulations
Gender Issues and Software
ID and Software Design
Instructional Media Production
Interface Design of Software
Learner Control vs. Lesson Control
Learner VS. Lesson Control
Learning and the use of classroom software
MI and Software
Motivation in Classroom Software
Multimedia Authoring Software
Navigation of Software
Positive and Negative Effects of Video on the Computer Software
Presentation of Information
Second Language Learners & Software
Software & Virtual Reality
Technology Training for Educators
Text on Screen
Transfer of Learning
User data input
Web Based Learning
Instructional Media Production
Instructional Media Production - (IMP)
What is Instructional Media?
Instructional Media refers to the various media and physical means that
an instructor uses during instruction in order to assist students’ achievements of the instructional goals.
Instructional Media includes but is not limited to; chalkboards, videos,
film, handouts, overheads, slides, computers, DVD’s, CD-ROMs, Internet, Interactive Video Conferencing, Podcasts and so much more! (Scanlan, n.d., para. 1).
A Few Examples of Some Instructional Media:
Podcasts are recorded audio files that can be used to deliver personalized content (Bollinger et al., 2010).
Interactive Video Conferencing:
Interactive Video Conferencing, (IVC), allows people with specialized equipment to interact with each other by means of the internet (Kent & Simpson, 2010).
The Internet enables anybody to share, find and manage information. In instruction teachers
can use this media to have learners explore and research, communicate, collaborate. Teachers can also find this media useful in finding videos and clips on particular lessons. Teachers can also collaborate with students and be in constant contact with their students as well as the parents (Stewart, 2000).
Google Docs allows everyone the ability to create and collaborate. Google Docs is a free web based program where anyone can create word documents, presentations
and spreadsheets. This program allows for groups to edit and update any project from their own computers. All the group members need is a Web browser. A key feature of this program is that all documents are safe and secure on the Google servers, so you will never lose your data.
For teachers, this program has been very helpful in the teaching realm. Google Docs has fostered group collaboration. Teachers have been using Google Docs to keep track of grades, attendance and other important information. Teachers are also able to keep track of other students’ work by always having access to the work and being able to edit the work. Google Docs also enables teachers to share lesson plans or just collaborate with other teachers. Quizzes and tests can be easily made on spreadsheet forms where students’ answers will be time stamped and organized into a spreadsheet (Google, 2011).
Voice Thread allows group conversations to be collected and shared in one place. Voice Thread allows users to create collaborative, multimedia slide shows where the users are able to leave comments as they navigate through the slides. The slide show can contain images, videos as well as documents. Using Voice Thread, people have the convenience of leaving comments in a variety of ways; comments can be made by voice, (via microphone or telephone), text, audio file, or video (via webcam).
With Voice Thread the users have the ability to doodle while commenting. Another feature in Voice Thread is that they can be embedded and exported to other websites, MP3 players or DVD’s (VoiceThread, 2011).
According to Merriam Webster online, a blog
is a web site that contains an onl
ine personal journal with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the writer, (
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2011).
Why Use Instructional Media?
According to research, implementing instructional media production in education reinforces learning. One way learning is reinforced is by collaboration. Baturay and Bay (2009) conducted an experimental study to find how the use of these mediums affected the students’ motivation and achievement during their online problem based learning course (2009). In this experimental study, by Baturay and Bay, results displayed that the experimental group who used instructional media were closely connected to their classmates compared to the control group who did not use these tools, such as discussion boards, e-mails and multimedia content in addition to the standard tutorials. Using these instructional mediums the experimental group developed a sense of security and trust while collaborating with their cohorts. Studies also indicate that the experimental groups scored higher on the post-tests from that of the control group. The safe and secure environment that the instructional tools offered allowed the students a way to connect and to learn together which in turn gave them motivation and aided them in achieving higher scores (2009).
Instructional tools reinforce learning by offering an opportunity for greater understanding. In a study conducted by Anastasiades (2009), it was found that by working together through videoconferencing, the students were able to understand the lesson more readily then the group who did not collaborate with each other (Anastasiades et al., 2009, p.334-336).
According to the results of these studies, the use of instructional technology such as Videoconferencing, blogs, discussion boards, podcasts and other tools enhance the students’ learning experience. Students reported that these mediums offered meaningful learning experiences and allowed for students to bond with the teachers as well as their classmates.
How to choose Instructional Media:
Reiser and Dick (1996) offer the three major criteria for selecting instructional media: practicality, student appropriateness, and instructional appropriateness
: The intended media should be available, cost and time efficient, and the instructor needs to know how to work the media chosen.
: The media should be appropriate for the developmental and experiential levels of the students.
: The media needs to be appropriate for the planned instructional strategy. (Scalan, n.d., para 4).
“A good aid is like a window, it should not call attention to itself, it should just let in the light.”
(Scalan, n.d., para 3).
Instructional Media should be used when it can aid in learning. Media is used to help; increasing interest and attention, aiding in the acceptance of an idea, or to adjust the learning climate (Scalan, n.d., para 3).
More about Interactive Video Conferencing:
More about Voice Threads:
More about Google Docs for Teachers:
More about Black Board for Teachers:
Information on Instructional Media Production:
Anastasiades, P., Filippousis, G., Giza, P., Karvunis, L., Mastoraki, H., Siakas, S., Tomazinakis,
A. (2009). Interactive videoconferencing for collaborative learning at a distance in the
school of 21st century: a case study in elementary schools in greece.
, 321-339. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.016
Baturay, M., & Bay, O. (2009). The effects of problem-based learning on the classroom
community perceptions and achievement of web-based education students.
, 55, 43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.12.001
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from
Boggs, C., Bolliger, D., & Supanakorn, S. (2010). Impact of podcasting on student motivation in
the online learning environment.
Computers and education,
Google. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2011, from Google docs for educators,
Kent, A., & Simpson, J. (2010). Interactive videoconferencing: connecting theory to practice for
Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education,
Scanlan, C. (n.d.). Instructional Media: Selection and Use. Retrieved from
Stewart, W. (2000). Living Internet. Retrieved from
. (2011). Retrieved March 30, 2011, from Overview of voicethread, from
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